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1. During this lesson we are going to learn about why it is so important to keep yourself and your family clean, and we will give you advice on how to do this.

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2. Many children get sick and die because of illnesses that are spread through germs.

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3. Germs are living things so small they cannot be seen. Germs can live anywhere, even on your hands.

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4. Washing carefully can help to reduce the germs that cause illness.

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5. Now try to answer this question using the buttons on the controller!

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6. Can keeping clean help stop children getting ill and dying?

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7. Yes,

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8. Or no?

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9. Press a button now.

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10. You are right! Keeping your children clean can save their lives.

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11. Can you see germs on your hands?

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12. Yes, they are easy to see,

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13. or no, they are so small they cannot be seen?

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14. Press a button now.

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15. Correct! Even hands that look clean can carry germs.

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16. Many illnesses are spread by germs that pass from one person to another.

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17. Here are some of the most common ways germs are spread. Germs can be spread by touching. Germs can be spread through the air, for example when someone coughs.

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18. Germs can be spread through dirty clothes or bed covers. Germs can be spread by eating old, dirty or bad food.

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19. Now try to answer this question.

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20. Can germs that cause illnesses pass from one person to another?

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21. Yes,

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22. Or no?

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23. Press a button now.

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24. You are right. Germs can easily pass from one person to another.

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25. Many illnesses, especially diarrhoea come from germs found in human or animal faeces (poo).

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26. If these germs get into water, onto food or onto hands they can be swallowed and make you very ill. So it is very important to dispose of all faeces safely.

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27. Human faeces should be put into a latrine and the latrine should be kept clean. If there is no latrine you should poo away from houses, water sources and places where children play. The faeces should be buried immediately.

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28. Animal faeces also contain dangerous germs. So animal faeces should also be kept away from houses, water sources and places where children play.

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29. Where do many germs come from?

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30. From the witch doctor,

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31. or from human and animal faeces?

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32. Yes. Many germs come from human and animal faeces.

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33. Where should you put human faeces?

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34. In a latrine,

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35. or leave it on the ground?

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36. You are right! Human faeces must be put into a latrine or buried in the ground.

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37. Why should animal faeces be kept away from houses and places where children play?

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38. Because they smell bad,

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39. or because they contain germs that can make you and your family ill?

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40. You're right! Germs from animal faeces can be dangerous. So animal faeces should be kept away from houses, water sources and places where children play.

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41. Washing your hands is very important to stop you from getting ill. Always wash your hands after going to the toilet, before preparing food and before eating.

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42. Whenever you can, try to wash your hands with clean water and soap. Using soap is the best way to remove germs from your hands. This will help you and your children stay healthy.

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43. Always try to keep babies and small children clean. Wash their hands frequently as they often put them in their mouth. Encourage your children to wash using soap and water.

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44. Now try to answer this question.

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45. Which of these will help you keep well?

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46. rinsing your hands in water,

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47. or washing your hands with soap and water?

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48. Yes, washing your hands regularly with soap and water will remove germs and help you keep healthy.

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49. Is it important to keep babies and children's hands clean?

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50. Yes,

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51. or no?

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52. Correct! Keeping babies’ and children's hands clean is very important. Encourage your children to use soap and water.

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53. If you are changing your baby's nappy, make sure you wash your hands afterwards. If your baby or child does a poo near the house, clean it up immediately. Always wash your hands afterwards.

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54. Babies often put things in their mouth. Try not to leave waste or dirty items in or around the house. Babies are likely to pick them up and put them in their mouth and may catch germs and illnesses.

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55. What should you do after changing a baby's nappy?

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56. Wash your hands,

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57. or start cooking?

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58. Well done! Always wash your hands after changing a baby's nappy.

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59. If your baby or child does a poo near the house, what should you do?

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60. Leave it there,

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61. or clean it up immediately?

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62. Yes! You are right. If you clean it up immediately you avoid spreading germs and illnesses.

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63. Bathe or wash regularly especially after working hard or sweating. Try to use clean water and soap whenever possible.

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64. Sick people, including babies and small children, need to be bathed and kept clean.

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65. Should you wash sick people?

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66. Yes, you should try to wash them with clean water and soap,

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67. or no, it will make them even sicker?

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68. That’s right! All sick people, including babies and small children, should be kept clean with soap and water.

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69. Water that is not clean carries many dangerous germs. Water may look clean but it may still carry germs and be dangerous.

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70. If your drinking water doesn't come from a clean source, you should try to boil or purify it before drinking it. This is especially important if others in the village are sick with diarrhoea.

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71. To purify water you can try this. Put the water in a clear plastic bag or in a clear bottle. Shake it and leave it in the sun for a few hours. This will kill most of the germs and the water will be safer to drink.

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72. Can water that looks clean be dangerous?

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73. Yes,

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74. or no?

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75. You are right! Water that looks clean may still be dangerous.

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76. If your drinking water doesn’t come from a clean source, what should you do?

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77. Nothing, you can drink it as it is,

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78. Or you should purify it or boil it before drinking it?

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79. Yes! Purifying or boiling water will make it safe. Unsafe water can be dangerous and make you ill.

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80. If you have a source of clean water in the village, try to keep it clean.

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81. Do not urinate or poo or throw rubbish near the clean water source. Never store clean water in containers that have been used for chemicals, pesticides or fuels.

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82. What should you do to keep your water source clean?

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83. Nothing, the water will stay clean by itself,

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84. or keep urine, faeces and rubbish away from the water?

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85. Yes! If you have a source of clean water in the village it is very important that everybody tries to keep it clean.

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86. Some raw or uncooked foods can carry many germs and cause serious illnesses.

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87. If you eat meat or fish, make sure it is cooked thoroughly. Make sure that it doesn't have raw parts inside as they may carry dangerous diseases. Cooking food thoroughly kills germs.

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88. Remember: always wash your hands before preparing food and before eating.

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89. Can raw or uncooked food be dangerous?

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90. Yes,

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91. Or no?

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92. That’s right! Raw or uncooked food can carry germs and cause serious illnesses.

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93. Always try to keep food covered. If cooked food is saved for another meal it should be covered to keep away flies. If flies or other insects get onto food they can spread germs.

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94. Do not eat food that is old or smells bad. Do not eat food that has a bad taste or has changed colour. Food that has gone bad is very dangerous.

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95. When you pick up food from the ground, like fruit, wash it well. If a piece of fruit is rotting on one side do not eat the part that has gone bad. Wash or peel all fruits and vegetables that you eat raw.

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96. Why should you keep food covered?

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97. To stop it from going cold,

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98. Or to keep flies away?

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99. Yes, you are right! Covering food keeps away flies and other insects which could spread germs.

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100. Can food that smells bad or has changed colour be dangerous?

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101. Yes,

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102. Or No?

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103. Correct! Food that smells bad or has changed colour can make you very sick.

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104. By keeping your house clean you’ll make it more difficult for germs and illnesses to spread. You should try to wash cooking pots and utensils with soap and clean water after using them.

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105. Sweep and wash the floors and beneath the furniture. Try to fill in holes in the floor or walls, where bugs, cockroaches and scorpions can hide.

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106. Sunlight kills many germs. If possible hang or spread bedding in the sun regularly to kill germs.

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107. Why is it a good idea to hang bedding in the sun?

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108. Because sunlight kills germs,

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109. or because it makes your home look pretty?

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110. Well done! Sunlight kills germs, so try to hang bedding in the sun regularly.

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111. Germs in small drops of spit can spread to other people and cause illnesses such as TB. Try not to spit on the floor.

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112. When you cough or sneeze remember to cover your mouth with your hand or with a cloth. Then, if possible, wash your hands.

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113. What should you do when you sneeze or cough?

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114. You should open your mouth and not cover it,

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115. Or you should cover your mouth with your hand or a cloth?

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116. Yes! Correct! When you cough or sneeze remember to cover your mouth.

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117. Remember: Safely dispose of faeces and wash your hands regularly with clean water and soap, especially before preparing food or eating. Encouraging your children to regularly wash with soap and water will also help keep them clean and healthy.

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118. That was the wrong answer. Let’s go back and listen again.

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119. Sorry! Wrong answer.

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120. Hello. The title of this lesson is “Basic Hygiene”. To begin, press the arrow pointing to the right. After you have finished this lesson the arrow pointing down will take you to the quiz. To listen again press the middle button.

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121. You’ve now finished the lesson. Well done! Now press the arrow pointing down to play the quiz and try to win a gold star!

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122. Correct!

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123. “Basic Hygiene”.

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