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Diarrhoea

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1. Diarrhoea is a very dangerous illness that kills many children each year. In this lesson we will see why diarrhoea is so dangerous and how you can help to prevent and treat it.

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2. Faeces are normally solid. Diarrhoea is when the faeces are watery, rather than solid.

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3. Your child has diarrhoea if he or she passes watery faeces several times a day. The more frequent the watery faeces, the more dangerous the diarrhoea.

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4. Now here's a question for you:

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5. How do you know when your child has diarrhoea?

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6. Because your child is not eating,

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7. Or because your child is passing watery faeces several times a day?

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8. Press a button now.

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9. Yes, that’s the right answer. You know that your child has diarrhoea when she is passing watery faeces several times a day.

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10. If your child has diarrhoea their faeces will be very watery, which means that a lot of water is leaving their body. This is very dangerous because your child’s body will not have enough water inside it.

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11. Our bodies need lots of water to work properly and keep us alive. If your child’s body does not have enough water inside, it is very dangerous and the child can die.

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12. When young children and babies get diarrhoea, they lose water very quickly. Adults also get diarrhoea, but they don’t lose water as quickly, so it is not as dangerous.

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13. Now some questions for you:

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14. Why is diarrhoea so dangerous?

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15. Because your child’s body loses a lot of water?

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16. or because your child does not feel very well?

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17. Press a button now.

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18. You are correct! Diarrhoea is very dangerous because your child’s body loses a lot of water very quickly. This can cause the child to die.

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19. Why is it even more dangerous for young children and babies to get diarrhoea than for adults?

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20. Because young children and babies with diarrhoea lose water much quicker than adults?

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21. Or because it means they become very hungry?

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22. Press a button now.

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23. Yes! It is dangerous for young children and babies to get diarrhoea because they lose water very quickly; much more quickly than adults.

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24. Now let’s see how diarrhoea is caused and what you can do to prevent it.

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25. Diarrhoea is caused by germs which are swallowed. You cannot see these germs because they are so small.

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26. Germs can be spread in many ways, for example through the air when someone coughs or from eating old, dirty or bad food. Many people get diarrhoea from germs found in human or animal faeces.

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27. Germs can easily be spread from faeces onto hands and then from hands to drinking water or food.

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28. Once germs are on food or in drinking water it is very easy for you or your children to swallow them and get diarrhoea. Remember: germs are so small you cannot see them.

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29. What causes diarrhoea?

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30. Mosquitos,

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31. Or germs which are swallowed?

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32. That’s right! Diarrhoea is caused by germs which are swallowed. The germs are so small you cannot see them.

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33. Where do many germs come from?

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34. From human and animal faeces,

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35. Or from the witch doctor?

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36. Yes, many germs come from human and animal faeces.

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37. To help prevent diarrhoea, you should put human faeces into a latrine or bury it in the ground.

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38. Animal faeces should be kept away from houses, water sources and places where children play.

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39. Wash your hands with clean water and soap after contact with faeces, and before touching food or feeding children. Using soap is the best way to remove germs from your hands.

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40. Encourage your children to regularly wash their hands with soap and water, too. This will help to prevent the spread of germs that can cause diarrhoea.

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41. Where should you put human faeces?

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42. Leave it on the floor,

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43. Or put it in a latrine?

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44. You are right! Human faeces should be put in a latrine or buried in the ground.

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45. What should everyone in your home do regularly to help prevent diarrhoea?

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46. Wash their hands with soap and water,

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47. Or wash their face?

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48. Yes! To help prevent diarrhoea, everyone should wash their hands with soap and water, especially after using the latrine and before touching food.

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49. Now let’s look at what you should do if your child has diarrhoea.

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50. Some people think that drinking liquids makes diarrhoea worse. THIS IS NOT TRUE.

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51. If your child has diarrhoea you should give the child liquids to drink as often as possible until the diarrhoea stops.

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52. Drinking lots of liquids helps to replace the water lost from the body due to diarrhoea.

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53. Should a child with diarrhoea be given ...

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54. plenty to drink,

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55. or very little to drink?

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56. Yes, that’s right. If your child has diarrhoea it is important to give her extra liquids.

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57. Breast milk is the best source of liquid and food for a young child with diarrhoea.

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58. Breast milk is nutritious and clean. It also helps stop illness. A baby who is fed only breast milk is less likely to get diarrhoea.

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59. If your child has diarrhoea you should breastfeed more often than usual. This will help to prevent dehydration and malnutrition, as well as helping to replace lost liquids.

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60. If your baby or young child has diarrhoea is it best to give them:

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61. Breast milk,

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62. Or something else?

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63. That’s right. Breast milk is the best source of liquid and food for a young child with diarrhoea.

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64. If your child has diarrhoea should you breast feed....

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65. More often than usual,

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66. Or less often than usual?

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67. Yes. If your child has diarrhoea you should breast feed more often than usual.

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68. If your child is older and not being breast fed, you should give the child soup, fresh fruit juice, weak tea with a little sugar, or clean water.

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69. If there is a possibility the water is not clean, you should make it safe by boiling it. The boiled water should then be cooled before your child drinks it.

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70. You should give your child drinks from a clean cup.

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71. You should not use a feeding bottle. It is difficult to clean bottles completely and unclean bottles can cause diarrhoea.

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72. Which of these is a good drink for an older child with diarrhoea?

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73. Very strong tea,

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74. Or weak tea with a little sugar?

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75. Yes, weak tea with a little added sugar is a good drink for an older child with diarrhoea.

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76. What should you use when giving drinks to your child?

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77. A clean cup,

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78. Or a bottle?

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79. Yes, that’s right. It is difficult to make sure that a bottle is completely clean, so it’s better to always use a clean cup.

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80. If your child has diarrhoea she will lose weight and can quickly become malnourished. Your child will need plenty of food and liquids.

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81. Food can help stop the diarrhoea and will help your child recover more quickly.

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82. A child with diarrhoea may not want to eat or may vomit, so feeding can be difficult.

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83. You should encourage your child to eat as often as possible, with small amounts of soft, mashed foods or foods your child likes. Soft foods are easier to eat and contain more liquids than hard foods.

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84. If your child has diarrhoea, should you …

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85. Avoid giving the child food,

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86. Or encourage the child to eat small amounts of soft foods?

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87. Yes. Regularly eating small amounts of soft foods will replace some of the lost liquids, and can help to stop the diarrhoea.

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88. You can also make up a special mixture to feed to your child. This special rehydration mixture is very good for curing diarrhoea and is very easy to make at home.

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89. You make up this mixture with the correct amounts of water, sugar and salt.

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90. What do you add to water to make the special mixture to cure diarrhoea?

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91. Sugar and salt,

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92. Or oil?

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93. That’s correct. To make a special mixture to help cure your child’s diarrhoea you add correct amounts of sugar and salt to water.

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94. Here's how to make the rehydration mixture: First take five cups of clean water. If you are not sure your water is from a safe source, such as a pipe or pump, boil it first. Then allow it to cool before using it.

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95. Into the five cups of clean water put one big pinch of salt using three fingers.

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96. Then add one big handful of sugar.

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97. You should thoroughly stir this mixture until the sugar and salt have dissolved. Now that you have made the special mixture, you are ready to feed it to your child.

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98. What should you do if you are not sure your water is safe to drink?

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99. Boil the water first, then let it cool,

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100. Or use less water for the mixture?

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101. Yes, that’s right. If your water is not from a safe source, boil the water first and then let it cool before using it.

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102. When making the rehydration mixture, how much salt should you add to the 5 cups of drinking water?

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103. A pinch of salt,

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104. Or a handful of salt?

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105. Correct. You should add a pinch of salt using three fingers.

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106. When making the rehydration mixture, how much sugar should you add to the 5 cups of drinking water?

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107. A pinch of sugar,

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108. Or a handful of sugar?

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109. That's right. You should add a large handful of sugar to the mixture.

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110. You should feed the rehydration mixture to your child slowly using a clean spoon or cup.

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111. If your child is under the age of two you should feed her half a cup of this mixture each time she passes watery faeces.

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112. If your child is older, feed her a whole cup of the mixture each time she passes watery faeces.

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113. How should you feed the rehydration mixture to your child?

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114. Very quickly,

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115. Or slowly?

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116. Yes, you should feed this mixture to your child slowly from a clean spoon or cup.

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117. How much of the rehydration mixture should you feed your child?

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118. All the mixture you have made,

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119. Or half to a whole cup of the mixture each time they pass watery faeces?

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120. Correct. Each time they pass watery faeces, you should feed half a cup of the mixture to children under two and a whole cup of mixture to older children.

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121. If your child vomits after drinking this rehydration mixture, wait a few minutes then give the child some more of the mixture.

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122. You should continue feeding the mixture to your child until the diarrhoea stops. This will usually take between 3-5 days.

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123. What should you do if your child vomits after drinking the rehydration mixture?

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124. Wait a few minutes then try giving your child some more,

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125. Or don’t give any more of the mixture to the child?

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126. You are right. If your child vomits after drinking the rehydration mixture, you should wait a few minutes, and then try giving the child some more.

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127. How long should you continue feeding the rehydration mixture to your child?

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128. For 2 weeks,

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129. Or until the diarrhoea stops?

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130. Yes! You should continue feeding the mixture to your child until the diarrhoea stops. This will usually take between 3-5 days.

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131. Your child’s life is in danger if she passes several watery faeces within an hour or if there is blood in the faeces. Another danger sign is if your child has had diarrhoea for more than one week.

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132. In these situations you should take your child to the health clinic for treatment as soon as possible. In the meantime, continue to give your child plenty of liquids to help replace the liquid lost due to the diarrhoea.

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133. What should you do if your child is passing several watery faeces within an hour or if there is blood in the faeces?

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134. Do nothing and wait for the diarrhoea to stop,

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135. Or take the child to a health clinic or hospital?

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136. Yes, that’s right. Take your child to a health clinic or hospital as soon as possible and, in the meantime, continue to give the child plenty of liquids.

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137. If your child’s diarrhoea has not stopped after one week, what should you do?

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138. Take them to a health clinic or hospital,

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139. Or wait a few more days to see if the diarrhoea stops?

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140. That’s right. If your child’s diarrhoea has not stopped after one week, you should take them to a health clinic or hospital for treatment.

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141. You have learnt that diarrhoea can be very dangerous, especially for children.

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142. If your child has diarrhoea encourage her to drink plenty of liquids such as breast milk, clean water and rehydration mixture.

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143. You can easily make the rehydration mixture yourself using 5 cups of clean water, a pinch of salt and a handful of sugar.

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144. Remember: If the diarrhoea is very severe, has blood in it or lasts for more than a week you should take your child to the local health centre. This could save your child's life.

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145. That was the wrong answer. Let’s go back and listen again.

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146. Sorry! Wrong answer.

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147. Hello. The title of this lesson is “ Diarrhoea ”. To begin, press the arrow pointing to the right. After you have finished this lesson the arrow pointing down will take you to the quiz. To listen again press the middle button.

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148. You’ve now finished the lesson. Well done! Now press the arrow pointing down to play the quiz and try to win a gold star!

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149. Correct!

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150. Diarrhoea

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